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To start that you have decided for yourself what brand of car you want to buy. And
of course do not forget about the price of gasoline, the cost of
parking or garage, the state of our roads, and of course you have the
money. In this case, you do not forget that after buying the car it must invest another $ 150-200 for preventive maintenance.
So how do you buy a car?
you go to buy a car, cook and bring a small magnet, wrapped in a cloth,
a small mirror, chalk, cloth to wipe his hands and knees under the
litter, two-way screwdriver (Phillips and flat), wire diameter of 1-2 mm
and a length of 80 cm, wire diameter of 3-4 mm and a length of about 40 cm (it can be welding electrode without coating) and spanner 10x12.
Magnet wrapped in a cloth must adhere to the door of a home refrigerator so that just does not fall off. So prepared "device" you will determine the thickness of the coating vehicle, ie putty or not, whether there was an accident or not.
Learn about the Internet with offers for the CIS market. It suffices to give an appropriate text in a search engine for example - used cars in Ukraine.
You will be amazed abundance of different proposals. To query entered it will rstcars.com etc.
1. The primary task is to determine if the entire car repainted, parts or not. If repainted, then it was either an accident or a body had badly corroded. Both reduces the life of the vehicle, and therefore its price.
Remember, the vehicle must be clean, because when the dirty surface of the body hard to spot defects in coloring. Compare the surface of the roof, hood, trunk, doors and fenders.
Any labels, bands, labels often applied to cover up defects body.
viewed from the machine slightly loosen the rubber seals on the
windows, trunk lid, doors and determine whether there is a difference in
the texture and shade of paint outside and under seal. Traces of paint should not be on any rubber or plastic body parts (sealing glasses, etc.).
Open the hood and compare the paint in the engine compartment and on the wings. While the hood is open, inspect the spars. If there was a strike and pulled, still remain: knocked paint and "folds" on the surface of the metal. Each Japanese model, there are two or three places where it starts to rust. This usually occurs under the rubber seals windows, doors and trunk.
2. Check opening closing all doors. They should close the same, with the same sound and the same effort. If not, then most likely, the body is damaged. Remember that a car with a normal body all the cracks along the length should be the same width.
3. Tires on wheels should be worn evenly, and should be out on drives the next stroke. If the disc is cast, after hitting a crack may form, as almost all of these discs are very fragile.
4. Now the engine. Once otkrete hood immediately smell the air above the engine - the smell of gasoline is not supposed to be.
Engine compartment and all that you see there, keep it clean. The machine is ready for sale, engine Blasting dust is cheap. If this is not done, for this is the desire to hide anything.
example, engine oil leaks hard to wash at a time, because near hats
bolts, washers, plastic snap-in always remain the traces of dirt, that
is leaking oil. Here dust handy.
Inspect all parts and assemblies in the search engine oil leaks. This may be a little noticeable spot (engine "sweats"), but remember to fully serviceable engine no oil leak should not be.
there is even a small leak, it suggests either an elevated pressure in
the crankcase due to wear of the cylinder-piston group, or that the
engine was once overheated, and the rubber seals or glands "zadubeli",
ie lost their elastic properties.
Remember that the "little" engine oil on the surface can be only in domestic cars, and it is not very new. The Japanese car "slightly" is not provided!
Minor drips oil from the top of the engine valve cover, tramblera, servo actuator valves, etc. less dangerous than stains on the bottom of the engine, ie from glands loboviny, rear oil seal, from pan, the oil sensor filter. Leaked oil in the bottom of the engine have properties suddenly turn into oil leaks.
5. Pay attention to the nuts and bolts with flattened edges or "freelance" bolts (Russian). This will tell you that the engine "climbed", and being autopsied end wrench. Since
you are not familiar with the handyman, take these steps, then it is
necessary to count on the fact that he could something "no tie". Therefore, this engine - the "pig in a poke"! .
inspect the connector casing to the unit, plug valve cover to the head
unit and the camshaft to the cylinder head, that is, all connectors. If
you see any gasket, rubber or cardboard, traces of white or black
sealant, traces of paint or varnish - you know, that this is done in our
country, and then it is again - the "pig in a poke." Japanese used only silver-gray sealant that is almost invisible.
6. Remove the dipstick oil level in the engine. The
oil should be at the top level, transparent to light and without any
impurities such as small black inclusions of charcoal powder. If the diesel engine, the oil will be black. It is not terrible, but a drop of the oil to the light should be slightly transparent. If it is not, then the oil should be changed.
7. Open the filler cap for the Gulf oil and inspect it. Inside, there should be a black paste-like plaque (scratch the inside of the lid with a screwdriver or thick wire).
presence of plaque says Abuse engine lubrication: or adding oil is not a
suitable type, or is it a long time did not change, or, more often than
not, the engine is overheating.
Inspect with a flashlight inside of filler cap and valve train parts, if they are visible. We fully serviceable engine all you'll see inside, should be golden brown.
8. Pay attention to the signs, even inconspicuous, rust in the radiator filler neck. The presence of this rust indicates that at the time the engine was overheated. Rust in the reserve tank says the same thing.
Open the radiator cap and inspect it. To cover all the rubber seals should not be cracked. If
you look around the hot engine, the radiator cap should peel off very
carefully, because the system is under pressure and can burn your hands!
Filled the radiator TOSOL can be any color, as there are many varieties of it, but it should not be cloudy and opaque. If TOSOL muddy and dirty color, it must be replaced.
On the surface of antifreeze should not be oil stains and streaks. Their presence indicates a recent engine repair in Russia or of engine trouble.
9. Check the oil level in the reservoir and hydraulic transmission. If you buy a car with an automatic transmission, it has a power steering pump. Both containers must be one and the same oil "Dextron-II" (ATF).
must have the same color (red-purple), be transparent and free of
impurities, but, more importantly, it should smell the same. In the automatic transmission oil wears out faster than in the power steering system, and gets burnt smell. This
smell (oil in this case muddy) in an automatic transmission a
malfunction of the box: it drives for some reason burnt, and the service
life of the unit is very limited.
oil levels are required marks - lower for a cold engine, the top hot -
insert the probe in place (in many automatic transmissions level is
measured at the engine running at idle) and continue viewing.
10. Be sure to inspect all rubber products to the motor. They must be free of cracks. Pay special attention to high voltage wires, hoses and alternator drive belt, pumps, etc. Pay attention to the condition of the internal working of the belt. Crack at them say that these belts are old and unreliable. For inspection using a flashlight and mirror. If
the high voltage wires can be seen a plurality of longitudinal
scratches, most of all, they cleaned with emery cloth to hide or year
(it is often applied to the wire), wire or old age, which is
characterized by the emergence of multiple transverse cracks. These wires are unreliable.
11. Spread out on the ground under the engine newspaper. Ask to start the engine. No grinding starter is not allowed. The engine should start the engine immediately and dramatically ("explosion"), regardless of whether it is hot or cold. If the gasoline engine during rotation starter does not run more than two seconds, then it is defective and maladjusted.
12. When you start the engine you do not understand something, ask off the engine and restart. With the engine running, carefully open the oil filler cap. Make sure that the inside strive to jump inside the oil droplets is oil mist. If
the lid is opened at about 1000 rev / min out exhaust fumes, so excess
pressure in the crankcase and piston group in need of repair. Check for excessive pressure in the crankcase can be another way. At idle the engine, remove the oil filler cap and carefully put it in the oil filler hole. If idling cover jumps, the engine will soon require repair, but for now it will have increased oil consumption.
13. After starting the engine should immediately for 2-3 seconds, lift himself up to 1500 revs / min (rpm the engine warms up.) Then,
while the engine is warming up and he reduces speed to idle - 650-800 r
/ min, are not allowed any shaking and shuddering. Once the engine is started, open the radiator cap and see that there is not any air bubbles out.
If they do - the engine must diagnose the service station. After
1-2 minutes the engine when the temperature gauge enters the sector of
the working temperature of the engine on the scale, feel the upper
radiator hose. It must be cold because the thermostat is closed.
the temperature gauge be installed in the middle of the sector, the
thermostat opens and vents (top and bottom) will be hot. If
the engine is heated for a long time, and all the time the warm
radiator, faulty thermostat or do not, as it happens when the car is
imported from Singapore.
14. Warm up the engine. If the car has a detachable sensor with fan cooling radiator, wait until it turns on and after a while again off.
this case, you will see that the system thermal rabotaet.V serviceable
cars temperature gauge is in the middle of the working sector on the
scale for temperature. Now abruptly and fully depress the accelerator pedal and then drop (release) it. Do this again when switched back to idle. No noises should not be. When you press the gas pedal and the engine should start abruptly, without interruption, to gain traction. By reducing the engine speed no flinching is not allowed.
Now very gently press the gas pedal and when the engine spin up to about 3000 rev / min, abruptly let go. No interruptions and startle the engine is not allowed.
to set the idle speed (the number of idle speed indicated on the label
on the bottom of the hood, for example, 750 for the manual and automatic
rpm - 800 rpm), try to include both motor alone heaters, lights, hit
the brakes, turn the control knob to position automatically "D" and abruptly turn the steering wheel fully to the right first, then - to the left. The engine should not stall.
15. Check the smoke emitted. At idle smoke from the exhaust is almost invisible.
When you press on the gas smoke is visible, but it should be a pale blue-gray color. Black
smoke indicates faulty fuel system blue - oil flow in the combustion
chamber cylinder, thick white smoke - flow into the combustion chambers
of antifreeze and water. In frosty or wet weather, smoke color is not quite the correct sign of engine trouble.
18. Get in the car, with the engine and switch on the ignition. In
this case, the instrument panel lights up a lot of red lights and not
have to shine light emergency oil pressure (usually comes on when oil
pressure falls below 0.3 kg / cm), the lack of light and charging light
candles turn the heater circuit (at the car with a diesel engine).
latter should go out after 1-6 seconds, depending on the temperature of
the engine, and another 3 seconds you will hear a light clicking relay
under the hood. This stepwise reduced filament voltage spark. Now start the engine.
the red lights should go out immediately, except lights open door alarm
when the door opened, and a parking brake light bulbs, if included. Wait 10-15 seconds, stop the engine and turn the ignition.
if the engine is good, light emergency oil pressure should be off, as
in the oil system has high oil pressure, and it is slowly declining due
to an oil leak in the crankshaft bearing clearances. The smaller the gap, ie, less wear on the engine, the later the oil pressure alarm lamp lights up again. A good time to reduce the engine oil pressure is up to 5 seconds. If the bulb lights up almost immediately, the engine is worn out.
17. Start the engine. Now,
if you have an automatic transmission ("Machine"), press the brake and
turn the machine include various modes of "R", "N", "D", "L2", "L1"
button position at different O / D. No noise and vibration should not be.
Turn on the turn all the transfer. Every time the shift lever is in neutral, release one or two seconds the clutch pedal. No change in the noise background in the salon should not be. Transfer must include smoothly without sticking, with a slight push, so they should be switched off.
Now try to pull away. Again, there should be no noise and knocks. If you have a "mechanic", pay attention to the clutch pedal. She should be free running from 2 to 25 mm, depending on the vehicle model. If the drive clutch cable is used, note on which part of the pedal starts to move the car. If it starts to move when the pedal is at the top, it is almost certain grip soon require repair - replacing friction folds.
checking the front wheel drive car should be on the wide road to drive
up a steep rise, stop in front of it, unscrew the wheel sharply to the
stop and start abruptly. Then, if a turn left, do the same thing at the right corner. If the drive is in good condition, no clicks you hear. Otherwise, if you hear when starting 1.2 clicks, the drives must be replaced.
19. Stay on the rise and see how the parking brake. Parking brake performance can be checked, if I turn it on and gently pull away. If the machine will be in place and the engine will stall, the parking braking system. If the engine does not stall, it must be replaced, clutch facings.
If you have a machine, plug it in "D" position and release the parking brake. The car should be in place. Slightly push down on the pedal, it should start. Turn around and touch on the rise in reverse. The movement should start easily, immediately after pressing the gas pedal. If
the pick-up on the lift back or forward course is required to unleash
the engine up to 1500 rev / min or more, the machine is worn out and
will soon rise on the machine did not go. The car also does not have to slide when running forward at the position handles automatic "R".
20. Stay out of the blue, turn position "D", press down with one foot on the brake and the other sharply drown the gas pedal. If the engine will stall immediately, it can be argued that the machine is in very good condition.
the engine is not immediately stalled, in any case, no wait, he will do
it for a time, immediately relieve gas and turn the "N" or "P", since
this test badly worn all the already worn parts automatic mechanism in used cars.
21. Check the brakes: brake sharply on dry pavement exit and check the next. They have to be symmetrical, and when braking the car should not sidetrack. During emergency braking normal car is not controllable, that is when you turn the steering its direction does not change.
22. Ask to see you all the knobs in the car and talk about their purpose. Do try the effect of all the buttons, knobs, levers several times. Turn them at first sharply and confident and just turn it off. Then try to do the same, but slowly and uncertainly. The result should be the same - a clear integration of all systems and mechanisms.
23. Turn on the radio and set the frequency at which there is no transmitting station. Start the engine. Stop the engine. In the noise of the speakers any changes should not be.
24. When driving a car is not serviceable shall burn no red or yellow light. Peer closely at the dashboard to see if there any boards, light is still lit. Maybe a warning lamp twisted, and any system malfunction, and is not visible.
However, there can be two lights that you can not turn. One
informs the need to change the timing belt (timing) that lights up
every 90,000 kilometers, the second - comes every 40,000 km and provides
information on the need to replace the oxygen sensor.
25. Using your weight, swing with two hands each of the four corners of the car. The machine must not do the second jock, if dampers are normal. No noises should not be.
26. Look under the car. Note the traces of oil on the gearbox, rear axle and on the underside of the vehicle in front of the units. When the oil flows from the glands, it is falling on the propeller shaft (drive), throw them in a circle.
Inspect for leaks in the shock absorbers, rubber bumpers are intact anthers absorbers. Inspect the condition of all rubber covers (anthers), especially pay attention to the anthers wheel drive and steering.